A crossroads for multiple ethnic groups from the west and east, Togo’s turbulent social and political history and small physical area are themselves development challenges. Much of the Togolese economy depends on the cultivation of cacao and gold mining as well as oil exports. Home to over 7 million people, the country is among the world’s least developed, with most of the population lacking access to safe drinking water or adequate sanitation, a situation not remedied by a lack of sustained democratic successes. Maternal and child mortality are at extreme levels and nearly one eighth of Togolese children die before their fifth birthday (UNICEF).