The Republic of Haiti was established in 1804 when slaves and free people of color liberated themselves from French colonial rule after a violent thirteen year revolution, the only time in history in which a slave rebellion has successfully led to the creation of an independent state. This triumph of spirit was no match for the structural poverty that was created by the consequences of French colonialism, which overexploited the land’s natural capacity, and 150 years of war debts levied on Haiti by the French as a punishment for its independence. Today, there is no nationwide water or sanitation system and sustainable collection and treatment of sewage is practically non-existent throughout the country. Only 28% of Haitians have access to a toilet. Infant mortality rates (52 per 1000) are the highest in Latin America and twice those of neighboring Dominican Republic (World Bank). Haiti’s challenges are complex: a long history of political oppression, foreign economic and political meddling, endemic corruption, environmental degradation, and high illiteracy (50%) were then compounded by the 2010 earthquake, which killed an estimated 160,000 Haitians (UNICEF). Today, Haiti is reorganizing itself politically although concrete progress is difficult to demonstrate.